Throughout the industry, such professionals are known as Quants. A Quant is generally required to have several double first masters degree's in such subjects as higher maths, computational finance and a computer programming language such as C++.
Quants are generally paid obscene amounts of money, typically in the high six or even seven figure bracket - as can be attested to by any casual search of efinancial careers or cityjobs. Considered to be one of the top jobs in the city.
Not to be confused with a Quantative Trader, a pure Quant is not a trader and doesnt actively participate in trading.